saffron plant

Saffron and its properties

Saffron which is known as the health flower and one of the best spices and the Red Gold is the most valuable crop in Iran and is derived from the Alvand slopes.

Saffron plantation refers to the years before christ and it is grown in arid areas where have a cold winter and hot summer, plus saffron is grown more or less in historical countries such as Greece and Italy. Around 90% of the world production is dedicated to Iran and 96% of that is in Khorasan.
Saffron with the scientific name Saffron Crocus Sativies Lnriaeus from the Iridaceae family is a plant with a height of 10-30 cm, perennial and without stems, with glandular and round bulbs 3-5 cm in diameter, the aromatic flowers with 1-4 in each joint. It has 3 sepals and 3 similar violet petals and 3 stamens. The actual leaves of the saffron which appear at the time of flowering or after that are among 5-11; they are green and 1.5-3 in width. The edible and business parts of saffron is its red stigma of its branch that forms the product of the saffron.

Related postes: How to grow Saffron

saffron plant
saffron plant

Nutritional uses

According to the law of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), saffron is allowed as a natural pigment and it is not limited as a natural flavor and adour.

It is used in producing foods such as sausage and margarine- butter , cheese and dairy industry- cake, dessert, jelly and soda- chocolate and drinks- soup, rice and chicken.


Pharmaceutical uses

Because of bitter materials, saffron makes the digestion easy. The recent research has shown that active materials in saffron such as Crocin, Crocetin and other kinds of Cartenoid that can decrease the state of tissues and is preventing Cancer and decreases the fat of the blood serum and prevents hypolipemic, and increases oxidation of the tissues and can prevent disorders such as Alzheimer and Parkinson significantly. Saffron is used as a treatment in a wide range of physical disorders such as snivel, indigestion, jaundice, hepatitis spasm and diabetes, etc. and also as an appetizer and rejuvenator and stomach stimulant.

saffron plant
saffron plant

Industrial uses

Saffron is used for coloring the silk and cotton. Some analyzed chemical compounds of the saffron plant include:

  1. Carbohydrate: revitalizing sugar cubes that forms 20% of saffron weight such as glucose and mesocenthia and glycoside.
  2. Minerals: Contains K2O, NA2O-P2O2-CL2
  3. Vitamins: Like vitamin B1 and riboflavin B2
  4. Fat: Like stoicemasterol, capatasterol
  5. Pigments: Includes fat soluble carotenoids such as leucine a-carotene and b-carotene and water-soluble carotenoids such as crocin and anthocyanin. Crocin is the main agent of the yellow color of saffron with the formula C44 H64 O24 and the percentage of this material varies between 0.9% and 15% during flowering.
  6. Glikornand picro crocin: glycorid lacking color that makes the bitter taste of saffron with the formula C16 H26 O7 and the melting point of 156 ° C exists about 4% in fresh saffron.
  7. Volatile oils: The main cause of aroma in safranal saffron which is the main compound in volatile oils with the formula C10 H16 O.

Processing, chemical compounds and saffron standards

The dried stigmas of the saffron plan have not only general compounds such as water, carbohydrates, protein, fat, salts and vitamins; but also specific compounds that the amount and type of these compounds are the determining factor for quality and value of the saffron. The main pigment in saffron is crostein (genetic ablation of bovine quasine) that is soluble in water and used as the pigment factor in different food.  The main factor creating a special taste in saffron is colorless glycoside called picrocrocin. This compound is converted to saffronal during drying and saffron storage. Safranal, along with about 9 other ingredients, are the cause of perfume and odor in saffron. The amount of color, flavor, aroma and odor in the saffron can be measured using spectrophotometric method and more accurately by high performance of liquid chromatography.

saffron plant
saffron plant
  • Could be cultivated throughout the world
  • Applicable in small areas
  • Low costs
  • You buy equipment and bulbs Just once and you use the same bulbs in the following years.
  • Low water intake
  • Controlling atmospheric conditions that have a negative and destructive effect on flowering and plant life
  • Very easy harvesting of saffron flowers
  • The production of a high quality product in terms of the appearance of the product (the length of the strand of the stigma and the larger Qalam), as well as the quality of color, flavor and aroma is influenced by the three factors of pyroxin-choropyroxin and safranal.
  • Very high profitability

Table of contents Ebook Training Saffron Planting In Greenhouse Step by Step

Saffron and its properties
Step 1: Making or preparing a greenhouse
Step 2: Preparation of the environment inside the greenhouse
Step 3: Greenhouse facilities
Step 4: Preparation of Saffron bulb
Step 5: Aeration
Step 6: Silver the bulbs
Step 7: Stack Storage
Step 8: the End of storage and start the greenhouse
Step 9: Transfer the bulbs to the greenhouse
Step 10: Plant germination
Step 11: Flowering bulbs
Step 12: Return the bulbs to the ground
Step 13: Land irrigation
Step 14: foliar application
Step 15: Stop growth of saffron bulbs and digging them out from the ground
Frequently Asked Questions

Product details


  • File Size: 7/07 MB
  • Length: 99 pages
  • Publisher: Gruloda
  • Publication Date: July 31, 2019
  • update: Nov 18,2020
  • Language: English
  • File Type: Ebook (PDF)
hydroponic saffron plant

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